**Category:**

Research Papers

**Sub-Category:**

Astrophysics

**Date Published:**

August 22, 2012

**Abstract:**

The quantum condition describes the angular momentum of a quantum system. This angular momentum is a multiple of Planck’s constant. Max Planck, Niels Bohr, and Albert Einstein sought a classical explanation for the quantum condition. Ernest Rutherford also looked for a classical solution, gave up, and began his work with the nucleus. It has now been over one hundred years since a classical solution was sought. Science has moved on and it is now assumed that there is no causative explanation for the quantum condition. There currently is no causative classical explanation for the cause of spin, for the duality of particles and waves, for the existence of zero point energy, or for the origin of uncertainty. It is believed that these phenomena exist only within the realm of the quantum. According to this philosophy the everyday classical realm is only a subset of this mysterious quantum realm.

<<< Back