September 5, 2017
Comparative physics, comparative study, force, generalized theory of force, generalized theories clusters of force, fifth force, quantum interaction
As No.4 of comparative physics series papers, this paper mainly discusses the comparative studies of various theories (or formulae) of force, and on this basis, presents the concepts of generalized theory of force and generalized theories clusters of force. The essence of generalized theory of force is the extension and generalization of Newton's second law. In Newton's second law, force is the product of mass and acceleration of the object; while in generalized theory of force, force is the product of generalized mass and generalized acceleration of the object, in which: the generalized mass (including quantity of electricity, and the like) and the generalized acceleration are both the functions of coordinates and time, as well as other appropriate variables. Various generalized theories of force form generalized theories clusters of force. In the unified framework of generalized theories clusters of force, the related problems of Newton's second law, law of gravity, law of Coulomb, special relativity, general relativity, strong interaction, weak interaction, and the like, are discussed. Finally, by comparison, concept of the fifth force in nature, namely quantum interaction (including quantum discontinuous interaction, quantum uncertain interaction, quantum stochastic interaction, quantum entanglement interaction, and the like), is proposed.