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能量,动量,动量矩三守恒定律的比较研究

Author:

Yuhua, Fu

Category:

Research Papers

Sub-Category:

Unification Theories

Language:

Chinese

Date Published:

October 12, 2016

Downloads:

82

Keywords:

比较物理学,比较研究,能量守恒定律,动量守恒定律,动量矩守恒定律,能量守恒科学

Abstract:

作为比较物理学系列论文之二,讨论在传统观点中,能量守恒定律,动量守恒定律,动量矩守恒定律三个守恒定律的相同点:它们在一起构成现代物理学中的三大基本守恒定律;它们都在物理学领域获得广泛应用。不同点:能量守恒定律由时间平移不变性推出,动量守恒定律由空间平移不变性推出,而角动量守恒定律则由空间旋转对称性推出;在整个自然科学领域,能量守恒定律是最重要而且应用最广泛的定律,而其它两个定律则没有如此的重要性和广泛性。应用比较的方法,重新讨论上述传统观点。根据真理的唯一性原则,应将能量守恒定律视为唯一的真理,并建立能量守恒科学;据此,在整个物理学范围内,动量守恒定律和动量矩守恒定律并不是永远正确的,亦即这两个守恒定律仅在一定条件下适用(例如,可以给出考虑摩擦等效应时这两个守恒定律不成立的实例),因此不能作为物理学中的基本守恒定律;更有甚者,在没有外力作用的情况下,动量也可能不守恒;在没有外力矩作用的情况下,动量矩也可能不守恒。最后讨论动量守恒定律和动量矩守恒定律的改进。

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