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**Author:**

Akil, Mohammed Zaman

**Category:**

Research Papers

**Sub-Category:**

Relativity Theory

**Language:**

English

**Date Published:**

June 30, 2016

**Downloads:**

177

**Keywords:**

Special Theory of Relativity (STR); CosmicTime Flow; Definition of the meter; Newtons Laws of Motion

**Abstract:**

In any scientific enquiry there are no such things as final solutions. Yet, in this paper, I aim to explain the problems of the size changes of some basic measure units on inertial frames of referenc when in relative motion. It was demonstrated that a normal clock's rate of ticking duration becomes 'slower' when placed on a “faster” inertial frame of relative motion. Equally the mass of a body becomes larger with increased kinetic motion. Thus, the same clock runs slower when at rest on the moving Earth frame relative to the gravitational rest frame of the Sun. Similarly, the same pendulum clock runs slower when in motion (on board a moving train) and its arm must be physically shortened such that both clocks are synchronized to read a universal 'common time clock system' (CTCS) on both frames. The effect of shortening the arm's length compensate for the increase to the bob mass size due to gained kinetic energy of motion and the clocks' ticks durations become of the same length on both frames. An arbitray universality of a natural cosmic time flow rate is thus established on both frames as it is important for starting common dating and calculating the relative total energy content of a material body.

Comment-2 By the Author.

M. Zaman Akil

akilmz@yahoo.com

22 July 2016

“Material bodies move in space driven by Forces that accelerate them. The Newtonian expression of force, involves the three basic and fundamental units of measures, mass, length and time. It was discovered that these units change size as the frame velocity changes. Obviously, the duration of a clock time is linked to the size of the other parameters in the force expression and has less to do with simultaneity or the velocity of light. However, the Special Theory of Relativity (STR) was introduced by Einstein to solve the problem. We certainly do not need higher mathematics or to be specially gifted to understand what is involved in the solution. Instead, Einstein brought some strange hypotheses such as “time dilation” and “length contraction” to complicate the difficulty. Since mass as well as length increases with motion, I have shown, we either accept the slow ticking clock and use Lorentz gamma factor (1-v^2/c^2) ^1/2 to transform the units or else use a synchronized clock system on both frames with one single physical shortening adjustment of the meter rod on the moving frame. Therefore to keep to the international definition of the meter, the by now longer rod on the moving frame must be shortened by Lorentz gamma factor . The velocity of light remains a universal constant and the energy content remains the same expression as in STR. Obviously, there is no time dilation but the clock pointers on the moving frame run, slower due to reduced acceleration as the mass increase in size because of the gained kinetic energy converted to mass. Equally, there is no natural contraction of the meter rod as claimed in STR. The same meter rod which similarly expands as mass, can be shortened to achieve the transformation and harmonize the units on both frames.”

Consider an orbiting electron as a convenient timing device. Each time it completes an orbit it takes say, te duration of time while on the rest frame. However, the same electron gains inertia (mass) when transported to a faster moving frame. Since the force driving the electron is constant, the acceleration becomes reduced because of the added inertia and the time te' it takes the electron to complete an orbit is now longer. Therefore, this atom clock system similarly runs slower.

M. Zaman Akil

akilmz@yahoo.com

22 July 2016

“Material bodies move in space driven by Forces that accelerate them. The Newtonian expression of force, involves the three basic and fundamental units of measures, mass, length and time. It was discovered that these units change size as the frame velocity changes. Obviously, the duration of a clock time is linked to the size of the other parameters in the force expression and has less to do with simultaneity or the velocity of light. However, the Special Theory of Relativity (STR) was introduced by Einstein to solve the problem. We certainly do not need higher mathematics or to be specially gifted to understand what is involved in the solution. Instead, Einstein brought some strange hypotheses such as “time dilation” and “length contraction” to complicate the difficulty. Since mass as well as length increases with motion, I have shown, we either accept the slow ticking clock and use Lorentz gamma factor (1-v^2/c^2) ^1/2 to transform the units or else use a synchronized clock system on both frames with one single physical shortening adjustment of the meter rod on the moving frame. Therefore to keep to the international definition of the meter, the by now longer rod on the moving frame must be shortened by Lorentz gamma factor . The velocity of light remains a universal constant and the energy content remains the same expression as in STR. Obviously, there is no time dilation but the clock pointers on the moving frame run, slower due to reduced acceleration as the mass increase in size because of the gained kinetic energy converted to mass. Equally, there is no natural contraction of the meter rod as claimed in STR. The same meter rod which similarly expands as mass, can be shortened to achieve the transformation and harmonize the units on both frames.”

Consider an orbiting electron as a convenient timing device. Each time it completes an orbit it takes say, te duration of time while on the rest frame. However, the same electron gains inertia (mass) when transported to a faster moving frame. Since the force driving the electron is constant, the acceleration becomes reduced because of the added inertia and the time te' it takes the electron to complete an orbit is now longer. Therefore, this atom clock system similarly runs slower.

A clarifying comment by the Author

4th July 2016

akilmz@yahoo.com

In his theory of super relativity, Albert Einstein, an exceptionally gifted theoretical physicist, introduced some strange hypotheses which contradict the prevailing common sense view of reality and our human concept of time and space. It included the dramatic myth of the twin paradox which attracted and appealed to the general public and the fertile wild imagination of those who seek strange and extra terrestrial solutions. The issue is that of the same clock slowing down when transferred to a faster moving inertial reference frames. Instead of searching for a physical cause such that caused by the mass of a body increasing in size with motion and the consequential changes to the elements of Newtonian force such as acceleration that drive the clocks pointers or the electrons in orbit.

As I have stated in the paper, keeping to the same measure units: the strength size of a force remains constant irrespective of changes to the frame motion and the Newtonian parametric units of the force. Since the inertia of a body (mass) increases naturally with motion, because of gained kinetic energy, other parameters of the elements of force change accordingly. We have two choices: employ the same clock on the moving frame which is now slower ticking or else keep to a synchronized common clocks system on both frames.

Case A=With the slowing Lorentz's local clock, because of the change to the size of mass, both the length and duration of the pointers change accordingly. Thus on the rest reference frame Force=mo r o / to2 while on the moving frame F=mvrv /tv^2. Since the tick becomes a longer duration , tv = to /(1-v^2/c^2)1/2 and as mv=/ mo /(1-v^2/c^2)^1/2 therefore rv =ro /(1-v^2/c^2)^1/2 and the meter rod should be transformed to be longer. This is not the case with STR which stipulate the meter is shorter.

Case. B= With common synchronized time on both frames, to remains unchanged while both mass and length have to be transformed thus: Force=mo r o / to^2= but on the moving frame mvrx /to^2. Thus rx must be transformed shorter in length. The meter rod is shorter but time must remain common on the moving frame.”

4th July 2016

akilmz@yahoo.com

In his theory of super relativity, Albert Einstein, an exceptionally gifted theoretical physicist, introduced some strange hypotheses which contradict the prevailing common sense view of reality and our human concept of time and space. It included the dramatic myth of the twin paradox which attracted and appealed to the general public and the fertile wild imagination of those who seek strange and extra terrestrial solutions. The issue is that of the same clock slowing down when transferred to a faster moving inertial reference frames. Instead of searching for a physical cause such that caused by the mass of a body increasing in size with motion and the consequential changes to the elements of Newtonian force such as acceleration that drive the clocks pointers or the electrons in orbit.

As I have stated in the paper, keeping to the same measure units: the strength size of a force remains constant irrespective of changes to the frame motion and the Newtonian parametric units of the force. Since the inertia of a body (mass) increases naturally with motion, because of gained kinetic energy, other parameters of the elements of force change accordingly. We have two choices: employ the same clock on the moving frame which is now slower ticking or else keep to a synchronized common clocks system on both frames.

Case A=With the slowing Lorentz's local clock, because of the change to the size of mass, both the length and duration of the pointers change accordingly. Thus on the rest reference frame Force=mo r o / to2 while on the moving frame F=mvrv /tv^2. Since the tick becomes a longer duration , tv = to /(1-v^2/c^2)1/2 and as mv=/ mo /(1-v^2/c^2)^1/2 therefore rv =ro /(1-v^2/c^2)^1/2 and the meter rod should be transformed to be longer. This is not the case with STR which stipulate the meter is shorter.

Case. B= With common synchronized time on both frames, to remains unchanged while both mass and length have to be transformed thus: Force=mo r o / to^2= but on the moving frame mvrx /to^2. Thus rx must be transformed shorter in length. The meter rod is shorter but time must remain common on the moving frame.”

**2** total records on 1 pages