BENEFITS OF BECOMING A GS JOURNAL MEMBER LEARN MORE
All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident: Arthur Schopenhauer -- In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual: Galileo Galilei -- Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it: Albert Einstein -- When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable must be the truth: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle -- We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough? Niels Bohr -- Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Since the mathematicians invaded Relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore: Albert Einstein -- I would say that the aether is a medium invented by man for the purpose of propagating his misconceptions from one place to another: W.F.G. Swann: -- Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone: Albert Einstein -- Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: Bertrand Russell -- If I could explain it to the average person, I would not have been worth the Nobel Prize: R. P. Feynman -- I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use: Galileo Galilei -- How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?: Bertrand Russell -- Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I´m not sure about the former: Albert Einstein -- The glory of mathematics is that you don't have to say what you are talking about: Richard Feynman -- Anything is possible if you don´t know what you are talking about: Author Unknown -- In life, everything is relative - except Einstein´s theory: Leonid S. Sukhorukov -- Don´\'t worry about people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you´ll have to ram them down people´s throats: Howard Aiken --A day will come undoubtedly when the ether will be discarded as useless: H. Poincaré -- First they tell you you´re wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you´re right but it isn´t important; then they tell you it´s important but they knew it all along: Charles Kettering -- It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world: Aristotle -- The opposite of a true statement is a false statement. The opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth: Niels Bohr -- A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it: Max Planck -- Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions: Eric Temple Bell -- Half this game is ninety percent mental: Yogi Berra

Finding New Magic Numbers for Light, Heavy and Superheavy Nuclei

Author:

Rydin, Roger A.

Category:

Research Papers

Sub-Category:

Quantum Theory / Particle Physics

Language:

English

Date Published:

January 30, 2015

Downloads:

384

Keywords:

N/A

Abstract:

Historically, nuclear modeling came down to two complimentary ideas, the Nuclear Shell Model and the Liquid Drop Model. Certain combinations of neutrons and protons in closed shells led to exceptionally stable isotopes, and these were referred to as the magic numbers: 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126. There was no apparent pattern to this number sequence, only an experimental observation that there is a discontinuity of about 1 MeV in binding energy as each of these boundaries is crossed, i.e., an extra nucleon is loosely bound. A new phenomenological Electro-dynamic Model of the nucleus has been constructed by separately modeling a proton and a neutron using a classical electromagnetic approach first suggested by Arthur Compton. Using these two nucleon representations, different nuclei are arranged by placing neutrons and protons in static geometric positions, where the force balance has minimum energy. These positions have been verified numerically using a variational minimization technique. The intrinsic mass of a nucleon is ~ 99%. Some mass equivalent is stored in EM Fields between nucleons, and some mass equivalent is stored in EM fields inside a nucleon. The masses of all individual isotopes that were calculated are in agreement with the measured values within less than a tenth of a percent, thus mimicking the experimentally measured binding energy per nucleon curve.

<<< Back