All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident: Arthur Schopenhauer -- In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual: Galileo Galilei -- Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it: Albert Einstein -- When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable must be the truth: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle -- We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough? Niels Bohr -- Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Since the mathematicians invaded Relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore: Albert Einstein -- I would say that the aether is a medium invented by man for the purpose of propagating his misconceptions from one place to another: W.F.G. Swann: -- Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone: Albert Einstein -- Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: Bertrand Russell -- If I could explain it to the average person, I would not have been worth the Nobel Prize: R. P. Feynman -- I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use: Galileo Galilei -- How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?: Bertrand Russell -- Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I´m not sure about the former: Albert Einstein -- The glory of mathematics is that you don't have to say what you are talking about: Richard Feynman -- Anything is possible if you don´t know what you are talking about: Author Unknown -- In life, everything is relative - except Einstein´s theory: Leonid S. Sukhorukov -- Don´\'t worry about people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you´ll have to ram them down people´s throats: Howard Aiken --A day will come undoubtedly when the ether will be discarded as useless: H. Poincaré -- First they tell you you´re wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you´re right but it isn´t important; then they tell you it´s important but they knew it all along: Charles Kettering -- It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world: Aristotle -- The opposite of a true statement is a false statement. The opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth: Niels Bohr -- A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it: Max Planck -- Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions: Eric Temple Bell -- Half this game is ninety percent mental: Yogi Berra

Comments on Einstein’s Explanation of Electrons, Photons, and the Photo-Electric Effect


abdelhady, salama mohamed


Research Papers


Mechanics / Electrodynamics



Date Published:

November 16, 2013




Electrons, Photons, Photoelectric effect, Light, Charge, Electron-volt, Tthreshold frequency


According to an entropy approach and by reviewing the similarity between laws characterizing the flow of heat and electric charges, electric charges were defined as electromagnetic waves that possess an electrical potential or simply as ionized photons. Accordingly, the flow of electrons was defined as a simultaneous flow of particulate energy and wave energy. Such definitions led to clear the confusions of duality properties of electrons and light waves, conflicts in the SI system of units and to explain the difference between the calculated drift speed of electrons and the speed of electricity or charges in conductors. However, Einstein considered the electron to be a negative charge of unknown nature during his analysis of the photoelectric effect. Einstein presented his hypothesis that light may behave as a particle to find a plausible explanation of the photoelectric effect. He found the measured cutoff frequency of light below which light might not eject electrons from metal-surfaces in photocells regardless of how much light is shone on the surface as a proof of truth of his hypothesis. Such frequency may be explained also, according to the previously introduced definitions, as the minimum energy quanta that may gain a quantized potential in photocells. This explanation may find plausible explanations of the found measurements of the photoelectric effects for different metal surfaces, stopping voltages into photocells and the photoelectric effect of X-rays…

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