All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident: Arthur Schopenhauer -- In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual: Galileo Galilei -- Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it: Albert Einstein -- When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable must be the truth: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle -- We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough? Niels Bohr -- Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Since the mathematicians invaded Relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore: Albert Einstein -- I would say that the aether is a medium invented by man for the purpose of propagating his misconceptions from one place to another: W.F.G. Swann: -- Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone: Albert Einstein -- Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: Bertrand Russell -- If I could explain it to the average person, I would not have been worth the Nobel Prize: R. P. Feynman -- I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use: Galileo Galilei -- How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?: Bertrand Russell -- Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I´m not sure about the former: Albert Einstein -- The glory of mathematics is that you don't have to say what you are talking about: Richard Feynman -- Anything is possible if you don´t know what you are talking about: Author Unknown -- In life, everything is relative - except Einstein´s theory: Leonid S. Sukhorukov -- Don´\'t worry about people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you´ll have to ram them down people´s throats: Howard Aiken --A day will come undoubtedly when the ether will be discarded as useless: H. Poincaré -- First they tell you you´re wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you´re right but it isn´t important; then they tell you it´s important but they knew it all along: Charles Kettering -- It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world: Aristotle -- The opposite of a true statement is a false statement. The opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth: Niels Bohr -- A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it: Max Planck -- Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions: Eric Temple Bell -- Half this game is ninety percent mental: Yogi Berra

Geometric explanation of accelerating universe based on existence and essence of space-time concept


Omidian, Jalil







Date Published:

December 16, 2014




accelerating universe, space-time concept, universal space-time, receding movement, positive and negative space-time


It is an important question in cosmology to find how the universe is expanding acceleratory. The key to answer this question is to provide a new exact and philosophical definition for the concept of space-time. And based in this definition, using geometrical logic and primary mathematical tools, the movement concept in general, and the accelerating universe specifically, are described. In view of traditional philosophy, every unique concept has two aspects of existence and essence; space-time is defined as a unique concept, in which space is considered as essence and time is considered as existence. The value of this concept can be positive (ordinary space-time) or negative (mass and energy). This value can be expressed either via the unit of time which is second (T) or via the unit of space which is meter (X). They can change into each other via the constant of c, it means that for every second of time as the existence, we will have c meter of space as the essence. From a geometrical point of view, the quantity of every point of space-time is determined based on its distance from the initial point of space-time. When initial point is an absolute point (starting point of space time or big bang), the quantity which is obtained is universal and if we consider it as an adjacent point, the quantity which is obtained is regional. Therefore, different points which have different distances from the initial point will have different values.

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